Package management is one the key areas in the world of GNU/Linux system administration. Not only for system administrators but also for normal linux users it is an inevitable part that they need to be aware of in their day to day job. Even though hundreds of linux distros exist around us, number package management systems are very limited (in numbers). dpkg used by Debian with .deb format, RPM created by Red Hat with .rpm format, pacman used in Arch linux, portage by Gentoo etc are some of the popular ones among them. Considering the most used RPM and DEB packages, they both have proven to work flawless. It’s just a matter of personal taste to select one from the other. Here we discuss on how to build RPM based packages for different distros which makes you of .rpm to install softwares. Here is how a rpm package would like:
where <name> is samba, <version> is 4.2.3, <release> is 1.fc23 and <architecture> is x86_64. <release> part is often a combination of a positive integer with a distribution tag appended at its end. See here for more details.
Read More »
I don’t know how many of you have heard about this term called “PPPoE” which stands for Point-to-Point-Protocol over Ethernet. Even though this article is not intended to explain in detail about this protocol, in order to have a general understanding let’s go through the common concepts of PPP and PPPoE briefly.
PPPoE as a derivate of PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption and compression. PPP is also used over internet access connections. Two derivatives of PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA) are most commonly used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to establish a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) internet service connection with customers. The Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol for encapsulating PPP frames inside ethernet frames.
Establish a PPPoE connection
This would normally require a authenticated DSL connection via phone line, trunk line, optical fibre etc. So I would assume that you have Read More »
The root account is the most privileged account on a Unix system. The root account has no security restrictions imposed upon it (Hmm…there are some exceptions though). When you are logged in as super user, you don’t have to face any questions. Therefore it is easy, with a mistyped command, to wipe out crucial system files or even the whole system all of a sudden. I have had situations where I forgot my root password and is unable to do any administrative level tasks. Due to increase in different type of cloud services, users are forced to manage large number of passwords and it is very common to forget some of them which may include the system’s own root password. What can we do in those situations? Either we recover or just reset the previous root password with a new one. The former is Read More »